In the previous article, I discussed vowel space and cardinal vowels, trying to establish a foundation to use to discuss more practical details of actual languages, such as pronunciation of vowels. In this article, I will use the data from the previous article to compare vowels in Chinese and Swedish. I originally meant to include English, but I skipped that for reasons that will become apparent below.

The main focus is of course Chinese. Vowels are known to be fairly easy to get roughly right (communication), but very hard to get native-like (accent). This is most likely because they exist in a space rather than on a spectrum (actually, a volume might be a better representation if we include lip-rounding). It’s simply very hard to create an abstract representation of a sound in another language when there are already partly overlapping phonemic categories from your native language (most research suggests that language interfere with each other in all kinds of ways, thus making it impossible to become like a monolingual native speaker).

So, my main question today is to see whether or not my pronunciation of Chinese vowels closely resemble my pronunciation of Swedish and whether or not they resemble some kind of model in Chinese. Intuitively, I would say that they don’t resemble Swedish much and that they are roughly correct. Still, at the time of writing this little prelude, I don’t really know, so let’s check it out!

My vowel space

Except for the below graph, I won’t repeat what I wrote in the previous article. This is what my attempt at producing the eight cardinal vowels looked like:

cardinal vowel chart olleAlthough not perfect, this roughly represents the range of sounds I can comfortably produce. Of course, I could possibly refine the blue line a bit by trying to produce vowels between e.g. [a] and [ɑ], but this would probably not change the overall picture by much. Still, as we shall see, some of my Swedish vowels go quite far beyond the confines of the blue line.

Chinese monophthongs

The most common way of counting Chinese monophthongs gives us ten different vowels. There are actually more allophones, but I have to draw the limit somewhere, so I’ll stick with the textbook examples. Keeping the blue line from the cardinal vowel chart above, I have plotted F1 and F2 of my monophthongs in Chinese. These were produced in real CV syllables when available (otherwise just V or VC).

chinese monophthongsTo make comparisons easier, let’s include the F1 and F2 values as well:

Vowel F1/F2
[i] 264/2135
[y] 260/2064
[ɛ] 438/1901
[a] 635/1100
[ǝ] 486/1316
[ɤ] 483/1064
[o] 496 718
[u] 430/683
[͡ɯ] 317/1420
[͡ɨ] 374/1625

Before we start comparing this with other languages, it makes sense to know roughly if these values are in the ballpark to start with. The following diagram is scanned from 朱川’s 2013 book 外國學生漢語語音學習對策, but is originally from 吳宗濟’s 漢語普通話單音節語圖冊 (1986). Based on the frequencies, I would guess this includes both male and female speakers, but I don’t know exactly how these values where elicited. If you happen to know of a better source, please let me know!

vowel distributionNot all sounds in this diagram are present in my sample and not all sounds present in my sample are in this diagram, but the general picture looks quite promising. All my vowels seems more closed that the samples here, but I think that’s either due to the way I normally speak (in any language) or because of the shape of my oral cavity. I have tried to produce [a] with a higher F1 than 700, but I simply can’t do it. The below graphs compare my vowels (left) to those from 吳宗濟 (right).

shape comparison

I note the following:

  1. My [y] is roughly as closed as my [i], but it’s meant to be slightly open (I have seen this in numerous references, not just the above graph. This difference ought to be very slight and perhaps not even noticeable.
  2. My null final [͡ɯ] might be a bit too closed. Perhaps this is a result of trying to pronounce this sound as clearly as possible. In any case, I’m pretty sure this isn’t a big problem, the difference is pretty small. Also, these vowels are apical and therefore might behave differently than normal vowels.
  3. My [u] is pretty open compared to the model. This should actually be immediately obvious when you look at my monophthongs, the [u] is very far from the top-right corner. Still, I think my pronunciation of the cardinal [u] is very exaggerated and quite far from the correct sound in Mandarin. I’m not sure if my [u] is too open or not.

I will add these observations to a list that I will later check with native speakers to see if the difference is significant or not. Still, the most striking observation is that apart from the mentioned oddities above, the shapes are very similar indeed. Now, let’s see how this compares to my Swedish vowels.

A cross-linguistic comparison

The main question I want to answer is if rely on my native Swedish vowels when pronouncing Chinese. I don’t think this is the case, but let’s find out! If you don’t know anything about Swedish vowels, I suggest you check out this article on Wikipedia. In short, it’s a lot more complicated than Chinese. Mastering the Swedish vowel system must be a nightmare for native speakers of Chinese! To do this, I simply recorded the same words used in the Wikipedia article. The syllabic environment isn’t identical, but anything I write here contain similar levels of error anyway, so it’ll have to do. Here’s the formant data for my Swedish vowels:

Vowel F1/F2
[iː] 250/2189
[ɪ] 287/2321
[eː] 251/2480
[e] 449/1977
[ɛː] 798/1774
[ɛ] 521/2084
[ɑː] 590/982
[a] 733/1194
[oː] 490/1038
[ɔ] 532/667
[uː] 495/727
[ʊ] 273/657
[ʉː] 275/1727
[ɵ] 385/1178
[yː] 273/2051
[ʏ] 317/1913
[øː] 387/1747
[œ] 441/1561

I plotted all that into the same graph, but I can’t be bothered to label them all. The most interesting finding is that it seems my vowel space drawn earlier is much too narrow. I have quite a few vowels outside what I thought were my extremes!

swedish chinese vowelsHowever, when I started comparing Chinese with Swedish, I soon realised that this approach is deeply flawed, and doesn’t work very well for the long vowels. I didn’t realise this before, but the long vowels in Swedish undergo quite a lot of change. For instance, this is a spectrogram of when I say the word “hel” (“whole” in Swedish (the light red area is the vowel):

helI have no training in Swedish phonetics and I don’t know how to measure this. The first part is quite similar to [i] and the vowel then gradually shifts to [e]. The results will obviously be very different depending on which part of the vowel I choose to measure.

There are other oddities as well. How come that [ɛː] is considerably more open than my [a] produced earlier, but still roughly in the middle in terms of front-back? There are obviously too many things going on here to make further analysis worthwhile. I think most of this comes from different modes of pronunciation or different linguistic contexts.

Conclusion

Even though this didn’t really turn out as expected, I still learnt a few things about my own voice. First, it seems like I’m definitely capable of producing sounds that are considerably more open than what I produced for the cardinal vowels. Perhaps I should use these sounds as a reference point and try to redraw the vowel space from the previous article?

Second, my Chinese vowels look pretty good when compared with the expected values. I noted three differences that ought to be investigated further: 1) my [i] and [y] differ only in lip rounding in Mandarin (almost exactly the same tongue position), this isn’t the case for the model I used; 2) my [ɯ] is too closed, it should be at roughly the same height as [ɨ], although I don’t think this is an issue, 3) my [u] is very open compared with both the model and my Swedish pronunciation, which is very interesting and should be checked, although I’m pretty sure my [u] in Chinese is pretty good.

Third, the method I’m using here isn’t very good. There are several reasons for this, but the most obvious one is that the phonetic environment differs quite a lot between the recordings. In Chinese, I read mostly open syllables (CV), whereas all the Swedish examples on Wikipedia are closed syllables (CVC). The initial consonants are also different, as is vowel length. I simply don’t know enough about Swedish phonetics or acoustic phonetics in general to be able to say how much an impact this has, but my guess is that it’s pretty large.

Thus, I will abandon my attempts at comparing between different languages for now and just stick with Chinese. In my next article, I will look at diphthongs and triphthongs (or glides followed by diphthongs if you prefer). Stay tuned!

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Phonetics is great fun. In this article series, I will share some self-experimentation in Chinese phonetics that I simply think are too nerdy to share on Hacking Chinese (perhaps I will find some way of publishing something about this there later, but this is the unedited director’s cut). This is the first of several articles where I discuss Chinese phonetics and some related experiments I’ve done with my own pronunciation. Before we get to the actual Chinese, we need some basic knowledge of phonetics, so I will talk mostly about vowels in general first and will start talking about Chinese vowels next time.

About this article

A word of warning, don’t expect this to be helpful or useful, but expect it to be interesting. I do think that a deep understanding of phonetics can really help learning to pronounce a foreign language, but it’s certainly not the most efficient method of learning. If you’re interested in what I spend my spare time doing at the moment, read on. If you want quick fixes to your own pronunciation, go mimic a native speaker instead or read articles about pronunciation on Hacking Chinese.

If you find anything wrong or dubious in this article, just leave a comment. I don’t pretend that I actually know these things well, so there might be errors here and there. Since part of the goal is to learn more about phonetics, pointing out a mistake I’ve made is equivalent to doing me a big favour!

This article is going to contain some jargon and it will require you to already understand some basic theory. Rather than spending hours explaining these thing, I will simply link to Wikipedia articles whenever necessary. I will try to make the narrative understandable even if you haven’t taken several courses in phonetics, though, but I might be a bit blind to what uninitiated people find hard.

If you want to, you can do everything I’ve done here yourself, you just need a microphone and Praat, which is a program developed for speech analysis and is free of charge. I’m not going to go into any details about how to use Praat now, but it’s fairly easy to find tutorials online.

Vowels and vowel space

Basically, vowels can be defined in a two dimensional space determined by how the tongue separates the oral cavity into two compartments, which will result in a signal with different formant frequencies. This means that if you look at the spectrogram of a vowel, you can actually see these formant frequencies and thereby roughly determine the place of articulation of this vowel. The picture below is from my pronunciation of [i] and the lower line with the red dots represent the first formant frequency, F1, and the second line with red dots represents the second formant frequency, F2.

[i]

The value of F1 is related to the openness of the vowel, i.e. how much you open your mouth and lower your tongue when pronouncing it.  Try pronouncing “bin” and “ban” in English and you should feel a big difference openness.A low F1 means that the vowel is closed, so the [i] above is a closed vowel because F1 is very low.  The opposite would be [a], which is an open vowel and has a relatively high F1. See the below spectrogram for [a].

[a]

The value of F2 is related to the back-front aspect of the vowel, i.e. how far forward or backward your tongue is positioned. Try pronouncing “beat” and then “boot” in English and you will feel difference between a front vowel in “beat” and a back vowel in “boot”. F2 decreases as the tongue retracts, so a [i] in “beat” has a very high F2, whereas [u] in “boot” has a lower one (although not as low as the cardinal [u] described below). Compare the formant frequencies of [a] above and [u] below. Note that F1 and F2 overlaps in this diagram, the formant at around 2100 Hz is F3, not F2.

[u]

Cardinal vowels and my personal vowel space

What the above means is that there is a range of possible vowels and that vowel quality can be defined in terms of the location in this space. In phonetics, there are eight cardinal vowels that occupy the corners and edges of this space and they can be represented in what’s called a vowel chart. You can check the IPA vowel chart on Wikipedia, which also has audio recordings or York University’s site which also contains a neat chart with audio. There are eight cardinal vowels, four front and four back, each set comes with different degrees of openness.

(Actually, there is a third dimension I have mostly ignored and will continue to ignore, and that is lip rounding. As you can see in the Wikipedia article above, there is a second set of cardinal vowels that matches the first eight, but are opposite in terms of lip-rounding. This is too complicated for this article and I will ignore anything else beyond the basics for now.)

One problem with these charts is that they are schematic rather than accurate representations of the oral cavity, the produced sound or the perceived sound. For instance, since the shape and size of the oral cavity and other resonance cavities vary between individuals, you can’t just compare someone’s formant frequencies for one vowel with those of someone else and conclude that A’s vowels are farther back than B’s.

One way of approaching the issue is to draw your own vowel space and see what the cardinal vowels look like when you pronounce them. This is very simple to do in theory:

  1. Record the eight cardinal vowels
  2. Measure F1 and F2 for these vowels
  3. Plot them on a formant diagram (F1 against F2)

Each step isn’t as easy as it looks, though, but more about that in a moment, I’ll show you my results first. This diagram shows F1 plotted against F2. Note that actual frequency is not the same as perceived frequency, so therefore the scales aren’t linear.

cardinal vowel chart olleThese are the eight cardinal vowels and their F1 and F2 frequencies. Here are the relevant numbers:

Vowel F1/F2
[a] 253/2309
[e] 335/2094
[ɛ] 461/1702
[a] 636/1404
[ɑ] 580/1007
[ɔ] 424/672
[o]  361/609
[u] 245/446

You can also plot the frequency of F1 and F2 for each vowel, which in my case gives something like this, which is fairly close to what it’s supposed to look like. Remember, the order of the cardinal vowels is from closed front via open front and open back to closed back. Thus, we expect F1 values to first increase and then decrease. We also expect F2 values to fall through out the cardinal vowel sequence. This is also what we find.

cardinal vowel formant graph

I don’t think much can be said about this, even though my ow rendering of the cardinal vowels isn’t perfect. It would be interesting to see what the model talker on York University’s site would look like plotted in a similar way to what I have done above. Still, I think the blue polygon in the first graph shows pretty well the limits of my articulation. I have tried to produce even more extreme vowels in each direction without succeeding. Brief checks show that my vowels in actual languages (Swedish, English, Chinese) fall within this range, but more about this later (especially Chinese, of course).

I want to be as cool as you, what should I do?

As promised, I won’t go into details in how to use Praat, but I will describe the general process briefly based on the three steps above. The first thing you need to do is record the cardinal vowels. This can be quite hard if you have no experience with trying to pronounce sounds other than those in your native language. Note that even though the same letters might be used in your alphabet, if you are a native speaker, the cardinal vowels typically don’t match the vowels in English. For instance, “i” in English can represent two sounds: /i/ and /ɪ/, but none of them are as open and fronted as the cardinal vowel [i]. Therefore, some practice is required. Start by mimicking the audio charts I linked to above.

Second, you need to measure the frequencies of F1 and F2 in Praat. You’ll have to figure out how to install and use the program on your own, but I’ll give some suggestions for measuring F1 and F2 for the vowels. The main problem is where to measure and there are several ways of doing this. The key is to be consistent. You can either choose the time where the intensity is the highest or when the vowel looks the most stable (i.e. F1 and F2 aren’t fluctuating). I don’t think it matter much which method you choose in this case, but I usually go with the highest intensity since that’s much more objective than the idea of stability.

Third, plot F1 against F2 in a graph. The easiest way is probably to do what I did and simply take a picture of a chart and then manually plot your vowels in any decent image editing program. Creating a graph like my cardinal vowel graph is pretty easy with any spreadsheet software.

Conclusion

The main point with writing this article is that I enjoy it. There are also secondary reasons, like sharing what I have done with others and the fact that I learn a lot about this simply by being forced to write about it rather than just doing it. This is just the first article in this series, next time I’ll look at monophthongs in Mandarin Chinese and how these relate to the vowel space I drew in this little experiment. I will then move on to diphthongs, triphthongs before leaving vowels altogether and start looking at tones, consonants and so on. Stay tuned!

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Today I reach one of life’s predefined milestones: since I was born, the earth has completed a number of revolutions around the sun equal to three times the number of fingers on the human hands. Is this worth celebrating? Probably not, but it’s an opportunity as good as as any to write a little bit about what’s been going on since my previous birthday post. Since I have been notoriously bad at writing anything on this blog (I have only published nine posts in the previous twelve months), it feels like I owe the internet a summary.

bowtie-600According to popular psychology, I ought to experience some kind of crisis right now. Thirty is roughly the age where people start asking questions like: What am I doing with my life? Is this what I really want to do? Is this all there is to it? I have so far failed to experience any of this, but that might be because my life cycle is a bit delayed compared to the average. Sure, I have a degree and so on, but I’m still studying (which reminds me that I have forgotten to write about last semester) and haven’t got a proper job. Sure, I have a girlfriend with whom things are going well, but I don’t have a house, a cat nor any kids. All in due time. Perhaps the crisis will catch up with me later, but I don’t really think it will. I have proved quite immune to crises before.

In fact, I feel very optimistic about the future and feel that I know exactly what I’m doing. I might have been able to get to where I am now a few years earlier if I had made different choices earlier in my life, but since I feel that most of what I have done is useful in some way and I have enjoyed most of it so far, I don’t think this is a problem. In accordance with earlier posts, I will talk a little bit about what’s been going on in different areas since last time. Because most things have stayed roughly the same, I have less to say than usual and will try to sum it up briefly for anyone who is interested.

Education

I’m still in the same master’s degree program at National Taiwan Normal University here in Taipei. I’m now past the time when I worried about courses being too difficult or time-consuming and feel that I can relax and invest some energy elsewhere. This is great, because I’m going to need all that time to be able to focus properly on my research. I haven’t decided on a topic yet, but I’m fairly close to doing so and might write more about that shortly. It’s related to perception and production of Chinese speech sounds and how to learn/teach these at any rate, so no surprises there.

Hacking Chinese

The main reason I haven’t written much here is that I feel I get more out of writing articles on Hacking Chinese, a website about how to learn Chinese. The site has been expanding rapidly ever since its inception in 2010 and seems to keep growing at a healthy pace, even if I only spend a limited amount of time and no money on the project. Providing quality content once a week and sharing it on social media has generated about half a million page loads in 2013 alone. The more I think about Hacking Chinese, the more certain I become that this isn’t just a side project, it has the potential of becoming a serious job. There are many, many different paths to try and you are likely to see some of them surface in the coming year, some of them directly related to Hacking Chinese, others only indirectly so.

Social life

Things are moving steadily onwards and not much has changed since last year. This is good, though, because I have now been together with Zoe for more than two years and things are going better than expected. Sure, all relationships have their ups and downs, and don’t work smoothly all the time, but ours certainly looks a lot more stable than ever. My hope is that it will settle down properly once I get back to Sweden this summer when my life abroad will be mostly over, at least for the foreseeable future. It might prove tricky to find an apartment in Stockholm immediately, but I’m not too worried about the future. If you happen to have a nice apartment in Stockholm to rent to us starting this autumn, let me know!

Creativity input/output

I have stuck to mostly reading in Chinese (I read 25 books in Chinese last year), but I have also listened to a few audio books in English and my appetite for reading more is growing. I have also continued the work on my first novel, which should have a finished draft relatively soon. My hope is to have a version ready for other people’s eyes (although not publicly) at the end of this semester. Creativity is an important part of my life and I can feel that if I don’t have enough of it, I’m not really happy. I need to find a way to incorporate creative output in my weekly schedule even if I’m busy with other things! I have some ideas for how to do this, but more about this later.

Physical activity/status

I’m still practising gymnastics more than a dozen hours a week and love it. Sure, gymnastics can be very frustrating at times, but it’s such a beautiful sport in that it incorporates so many different skills and abilities, as well as raw strength, endurance and flexibility. I competed once last year and it went considerably better than I thought (I earned two individual bronze medals, one silver and one team gold). The next competition is fast approaching (about two months from now) and I’m doing my best to be better prepared this time. I also realise that I will (probably) never have such a good opportunity to practise gymnastics again, so I’m trying to make the most of it.

Towards a brighter future

As you can see, not much has happened that wasn’t predictable last year. I have done more of the same things, which is satisfactory in one way because this is what I like doing, but I can also feel that I want to move further faster. I’m quite sure that the direction I’m moving in is the right one and I’m also sure I go about it roughly the right way, but I think I’m too cautious, resulting in a slower pace than desired. This feeling has been with me for many, many years and I suspect that it will stay with me for a long time still, perhaps forever. I simply want to learn more, write more, read more, socialise more, practise more and so on, but there’s not enough time to do everything. It’s this feeling that keeps me going.

Even if this year’s birthday post was a bit boring, I’m quite sure that next year’s will be more interesting. Even if I probably won’t graduate before then, I will still finish my courses and move back to Sweden to do my research. This will bring a lot of changes and I hope that most of them will be to the better. It’s also likely that several projects will at least partially come to fruition this year and even though I certainly don’t think that all of them will succeed, I’m confident that some of the will. I will try to write a little bit more here, both about said projects and other things, so stay tuned!

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I have never really understood people who say that they have nothing to do. There are so many interesting things to do and so many fascinating things to learn that I will never feel that I run out of things I want to do. Sure, I might still be bored at times, but that’s certainly not because of a lack of things to do. Two things I like a lot are sports/exercising and cookies, so before we move on to the central part of this article, let’s talk about sports and cookies.

Sports and cookies

I have practised some kind of sport for as long as I can remember and I have never stopped; there has never been a period in my life where I haven’t practised or learnt some new sport. At the moment, I’m in the gymnastics team at National Taiwan Normal University and I’m enjoying it immensely. I practice as much as can, which normally means around fifteen hours a week, but sometimes more than that. During the summer while I’m back in Sweden, it’s much less, but I still practise.

Counterbalancing this, literally speaking, I also have a penchant for cookies. However, I’m not an epicure or something, I just like eating cookies, usually quite a lot of them, something most of my friends know (cookie monster!). If it weren’t for my arduous exercising, my body shape would probably be spherical by now, so in a sense, cookies and sports cancel each other out, at least when it comes to body weight.

However, practising swimming, running, diving, martial arts or unicycling, body weight isn’t really a crucial factor. Sure, all these sports will be easier if you are strong per kilogram, but you can still practise them at an amateur level without caring too much about what you eat. When I competed in martial arts, weight mattered, but not in a sense that really influenced my life. It was more a matter of seeing how much I weighed and then applying for the correct weight class.

Gymnastics and the weight of weight

Gymnastics is different. Every single exercise is a battle against gravity. When you go to the gym, you have an absolute scale of reference and you can see that today, you managed 80 kg whereas last month you could only handle 75 kg. You also gained weight, mostly muscle mass.

This wouldn’t necessarily be good fro a gymnast, simply because what matters is the ratio between your strength and your body weight. In other words, the goal isn’t just to get stronger, it’s to get stronger per kilogram. If you want to make a reasonable gym comparison, you should stop recording kilograms and just report % of body weight for all exercises.

handstandWhy it’s hard to lose weight

Thus, I have deliberately tried to lose weight ever since I realised that one obstacle in the way of achieving some things I’m working towards is body weight. In short, everything I do when practising gymnastics would be much, much easier if I weighed less, so it makes sense to lose weight. The first challenge is to successfully do this while still consuming a reasonable amount of cookies.

The second challenge is that I can’t lose weight if that impairs endurance or strength too much. That would be stupid and defy the whole purpose of losing weight in the first place. Some basic research told me that most people who try to become stronger (in absolute terms) while losing weight at the same time seem to aim towards losing no more than 0.5 kg a week.

Think about that for a bit. For someone with my weight and daily exercise volume, it means that I should decrease my calorie intake by around 7%. Everyday. For several months.

A question of discipline

That requires some serious discipline. I know that some of you labour under the false impression that I’m the uncrowned king of self-discipline, but this is a very good example that I’m not. I have tried to accomplish this for many, many years (at least five or six) and failed every time. Provided that I keep to the above plan, one package of cookies puts me back by more than a week! If That means that if I’m diligent all days of the week except one, I will be standing still. I’m pretty good at being disciplined for limited amounts of time, but even the strongest resolve weakens sometimes.

In short, being determined to succeed 99% of the time isn’t enough, because that 1% renders the 99% meaningless. It sounds harsh and it is.

A milestone reached

This time is different, however. I write this article as some kind of monument. I have have succeeded reaching a goal I set up quite a long time ago, which was to weigh 75 kg on average for an extended period of time without significantly losing strength in absolute terms. That’s what I have done. It took me about half a year to go from just below 79 kg to just below 75 kg today. This is what the long and winding path to my goal looks like:

weightWhere do I go from here, then? In theory, I could lose a few more kilograms before it starts being unhealthy, but I don’t think it’s worth it. Instead, I plan to keep my weight just below 75 and try to improve my strength and endurance without letting my body weight bounce up again. This goal is open-ended, of course, but I think that simply maintaining my current state is an achievement in itself.

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After having finished last semester with reasonably good results (thriving rather than merely surviving), I was quite sure that my second semester in the graduate institute of teaching Chinese as a second language wouldn’t crush me, even though I took more courses than the previous semester. In fact, the spring semester flew by and it feels like it was over even before it started.

Just like I did after the fall semester, I’m going to share some thoughts both about the program itself and my own performance. I will also say a few words about the coming academic year and my plans for the future.

My thoughts about the program after the first year

First things first. The program is called 華語文教學研究所 (Graduate Institute for Teaching Chinese as a Second Language) and is primarily aimed at native speakers, but also accepts international students. The institute is part of National Taiwan Normal University and is located in Taipei, Taiwan. I have now completed one academic year here and know infinitely much more about the program than I did when applying.

In general, i haven’t changed my opinion from after the fall semester. The program isn’t perfect (no program is) but is actually much better than I expected. Still, how much I learn here is much dependent on how much I do on my own and not all courses feel meaningful. With some effort, almost everything can be turned to a learning opportunity, especially since all teaching, exams, reports and presentations are held in Chinese and almost all social interaction is also done in Chinese. I might hesitate to choose this program if judged only on the actual content, but if I include the language I learn, it’s more than worthwhile. In other words, I feel that the program is perfect for me at this point in my life, but it might not have been so good earlier or later.

My grades for the spring semester

I typically underestimate my own grades, especially with courses that feel difficult. This semester, we had at least one course that I found very hard (Syntactic Structures of Chinese) and for some of the other courses, I simply had no means of predicting the results. Still, the below grades are roughly what I expected and the grades for the individual courses are more aligned with my expectations than last year when I received some undeservedly high grades.

  1. 華語文教學實習 (Chinese Teaching Practicum): 90
  2. 華語語法學 (Syntactic Structures of Chinese): 90
  3. 研究方法 (Research Methodology): 96
  4. 漢語語音研究專題 (Special Topics on Chinese Phonetics): 88
  5. 高級華語 (Advanced Chinese language course): 94
  • Weighted average: 91.4

I also passed two important bureaucratic milestones. I didn’t spend any time preparing for these, but I still want to mention that I passed both a pronunciation exam for Chinese teachers in Taiwan (華語口語表達考試) and the highest level of TOCFL (Test Of Chinese as a Foreign Language, Taiwan’s HSK), which is a requirement for graduation. I still find the reading section hard on the latter (so much to read, so little time), but the listening was relatively easy.

These results probably say less about my proficiency than the grades above, but they are still important academically. Surviving in the program ought to be harder than passing the exams, but that’s not obvious for casual observers.

The future

Apart from taking another five courses during the coming academic year, I also need to start focusing my research in preparation for my thesis writing. I don’t plan to stay in the program longer than necessary and since I already have a pretty good idea of what kind of research I want to do for my thesis, I feel that my plan is realistic. It’s going to be something about teaching pronunciation to Swedish high school and university students, but exactly what area I will focus on remains to be seen. Much more about this later, stay tuned!

 

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I’m a creative person. To be happy in the long term, I need (at least) four things: mental stimulation, social interaction, physical challenges and creative input/output. If any of these are running low for a long period of time, I will feel it in some way. Being enrolled in a master’s degree program here in Taiwan, I have the first aspect above pretty much covered; just surviving my courses is mental stimulation enough to kill a small cow. Even though my social situation leaves some things to wish for (Zoe is 8361 kilometres away, and the number is roughly as large for family and friends), it still works fairly well. When it comes to physical activity, I’ve practised gymnastics this semester than ever before and I enjoy it immensely.

When it comes to creativity, however, I have felt a shortage building up since I came to Taiwan. In Sweden, I have very creative friends and play or write role-playing games regularly, which means that the default creativity input/output is significantly above zero. In Taiwan, the situation is completely different. My only significant creative output comes from more light-hearted and relaxed articles (such as the April Fool’s article last month) and some creative writing in Chinese. I have also written several hundred pages of text related to Hacking Chinese, but that doesn’t really count as creative writing. Creative input has been slightly better since I keep reading quite a lot of novels, mostly in Chinese, but output remains dismally low.

The problem

Obviously, something needs to be done about this. I feel a growing need to write freely about whatever I feel like writing about, without caring about what anybody else thinks about it, otherwise it will start creeping into my academic work (the detailed lesson plans I handed in last semester contained vampires, Hitler and fireworks, but I stopped short of including all three in the same setting).

The problem is that most of my current projects, especially my novel, takes quite a lot of time to work on, it’s not something I can pick up for half an hour and write a paragraph or two, it requires me to focus deeply. If I were in the habit of writing daily, it would be fine, but I don’t have time to do that. I always feel like I have a thousand other things to do. At this pace, I will never finish, not to mention publish, any novel. I can’t postpone my creative output forever. Let’s accept it, I will always be busy, I don’t need fewer things to do, I need a way of being able to write creatively even while I’m busy.

Enter: Creative Saturdays

To alleviate this problem, I intend to try something I’ve chosen to call creative Saturdays. It doesn’t mean that I will only spend my time doing creative things once a week, it means that I will prohibit myself from doing certain non-creative things on Saturdays. If I have already decided that I’m not going to study, review vocabulary, write on a paper or prepare next weeks classes, I might free up enough time and energy to actually get something else done. Perhaps I will be able to get rid of the feeling that I should actually be doing something else.

Here’s a list of things I won’t do on Saturdays:

  • Study Chinese in any way
  • Prepare for tests, reports or similar
  • Do any kind of homework
  • Manage the Hacking Chinese website
  • Reply to or discuss any of the above

So, what will I do instead? Well, they say the sky is the limit, so I suppose anything is possible, but here are a few things that I can say right away that I want to do more:

  • Write short stories (Swedish, English or Chinese)
  • Finish the draft of my novel (Swedish)
  • Plan the next novel (Swedish or English)
  • Write on the Hacking Chinese e-book(s) (English)
  • Write articles on this website (English)
  • Read more fiction (Chinese)

Conclusion

Will this work? Will the fact that I have forbidden myself from doing the things in the first list above actually help me create more? I don’t know. Today is the first creative Saturday and I haven’t done very much yet apart from writing this article, playing some games online, read about 50 pages in the novel I’m reading and planning an article about gymnastics. I still have almost 12 hours left before going to bed. I probably won’t have reached the sky by then, but I should at least be on my way!

 

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In an article written almost four years ago (He did there confound all the languages of the Earth), I discussed the problem of learning many languages from a writer’s point of view. Learning other languages is very cool, but many people don’t realise how much time it takes. This inevitably means that you can’t spend that much time with languages you already know. Just look at my time log from last week: 67 hours Chinese, 29 hours English and 2 hours Swedish.

The backside of learning more languages

For most people, this isn’t  a problem, because knowing your native language to a certain level or knowing English to the level I have learnt it is enough in most cases. However, for people who aspire to become authors (meaning someone who at least tries to realise dreams of living off writing things), learning foreign languages becomes a problem, at least superficially. I have spent at least ten thousand hours learning Chinese and several times as much learning English. I have also spent some time learning French, albeit not that much. If I would have spent that time honing only my Swedish skills, I would have a mastery of my native language far superior to what I have now.

Similarly, if I hadn’t started learning Chinese, my English would probably be much better today than it actually is. Instead of spending all that time learning a new language, I could have read hundreds of novels in English and possible written a handful myself. I chose, Chinese, however, and I haven’t written a single novel in English, even if I do have a draft of a novel in Swedish (more about that later). I read a total of one (that’s right, one) novel in English last year. Compare that to my average reading pace which was close to one hundred books per year before I started learning Chinese.

Two sides of the same coin

Now, it might be argued that the entire discussion is bunk. What if I can write more interesting things in English or Swedish precisely because I have learnt other languages? What if the experiences I gained on the way enables me to write novels that no-one else can write? Besides, most things about writing is, I believe, not related to the specific language in question. Writing a novel is about much more than the words; it’s about much more than language.

Should I write in Swedish or English?

However, novels still need to be projected through language, regardless of which one it is. The question for me is which language I should choose, which is the core question of this article. As mentioned above, I have a draft of a novel written in Swedish. I think it has potential, I think it could become pretty good if I rewrite it and incorporate all the changes I know the story needs. In short, I think the book is too interesting not to finish.

Roughly a month ago, the idea popped up that I might want to rewrite the novel in English instead of Swedish. This felt a bit wild and crazy at first, but I now have a slightly more balanced opinion (I think).

English vs. Swedish

Why I might want to write the novel in English:

  • I like the English language
  • More people can read it
  • It’s an interesting experiment

Why I might want to write the novel in Swedish:

  • I write better in Swedish
  • It’s an opportunity to reconnect with Swedish
  • The draft is already written in Swedish

External vs. internal factors

One relevant question is whether external factors matter or not. One reason for writing the novel in English is that more people are likely to read it (I’m much more well-known in English than in Swedish, mostly because of Hacking Chinese, but also because few of people I know who speak Chinese also speak Swedish). Still, the chances of being picked up by a real publisher is close to zero (that’s probably  true in Swedish as well, though, especially for this novel).

The fact that a Swedish version of the novel would be better is also mostly an external factor. If I care very much about what other people think of my writing, I should write in Swedish simply because I’ll do a better job. If I don’t care, the language choice doesn’t matter in terms of whether the novel is well-written or not.

At first, I thought that the draft being in Swedish was a limiting factor, but I’m now convinced that it isn’t. The reason is that I would need to rewrite the novel entirely anyway (too many things need editing), so doing it in another language might actually feel more worthwhile. It would allow me to change all the details without feeling I’m just editing a vast number of sentences.

Conclusion

To be honest, the conclusion is quite obvious. However, I only figured that out after writing this article, so what you’ve just read is a journey through my own decision making process. The conclusion is obvious because the choice I make doesn’t necessarily limit future choices. It’s not like I choose between English or Swedish and that I can never use the other language for future novels if I feel like it. This means that the choice isn’t all that important.

Thus, the conclusion is that I should simply use the language I feel like using and don’t care too much about any other factors. I won’t start rewriting the novel until this summer in any case, but right now it feels like I want to try to write in English and see what it feels like (and what other people think about it).

If it doesn’t work or I don’t like it, I’ll know and I can write in Swedish thereafter. If it turns out well and I like it, I guess I’ll have to make the same choice again each time I start a new project. With time, I might even complicate the matter further by adding Chinese to the list of options, although that prospect is still very distant.

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I try to do at least one time log every time I change my habits drastically, usually because of larger changes in my life in general. This is the first time log I’ve made since returning to Taiwan and the goal was to examine how I generally spend my time. If you have no idea what I time log is, read the next section. If you already know and only want to read about the result, skip the next section. If you don’t care about my time log at all, you shouldn’t be reading this article. Read this Wikipedia article about the velar lateral ejective affricate instead.

What is time logging and what is it for?

A time log is very simple. Just write down everything you do for a given period of time and you have one. Exactly how detailed you are and for how long you keep at it depends on what your goal is, but you should be fairly specific and do it for at least one “normal” day (i.e. don’t choose a weekend or a day which isn’t typical of how you normally spend your time).

The goal with a time log is to become aware of how you spend your time. What you want to do with this information is up to you, but in my case, I want to see if my perception of how I spend my time matches how I actually spend it. Most people who do their first time log find out that they actually spend much less time working or studying than they really think, for instance. I’ve done many time logs in my life and I’m sort of past that, though.

You don’t need to be a personal development freak to be interested in time logs. A time log isn’t about controlling everything you do and trying to become more productive, it’s about awareness. I’m fine with spending ten hours a week playing computer games, but I want to be aware of the fact that I’m doing it. I want to do it because I want to do it, not because I do it without actually thinking about it. Or, to quote Socrates:

“The unexamined life is not worth living for a human being.”

This quote obviously has problems, but it I do think that self-awareness is one of the most important abilities or skills to posses. It influences everything we do and enables us to understand who we are, who we want to become and how to get there. Doing a time log is one step on the road towards better understanding of oneself.

My time log for a week in March 2013

Since my schedule is radically different each day of the week, I decided to record a whole week. This means that I wrote down everything I did between 2013-03-15 and 2013-03-21. I also sorted everything I did into crude categories to facilitate the analysis and the writing of this article. To give you an idea of how detailed my time log is, I recorded about 300 activities in seven days.

Below, I have presented some stuff I find interesting from the time log:

  1. Time spent using different languages
  2. Time spent on different types activities
  3. A closer look at overlapping tasks
  4. What I have learnt from this time log

Time spent using different languages

People sometimes ask me how much time I spend using different languages and I have written about this earlier (Internal discourse and operational languages). Of course, it’s close to impossible to time internal discourse, so this is merely an overview of the languages I use for the various activities I’m engaged in. Note that I have omitted activities that aren’t related to languages at all, such as sleeping, eating or playing non-language related games.

language-chart

  • Chinese: 67 hours
  • English: 29 hours
  • Swedish: 2 hour
  • (Non-language): 70 hours

Is this result surprising? No, not really. Is it representative for what I normal week looks like? Sort of, although I do believe that I normally spend more than one hour a week listening/speaking/reading/writing Swedish. This almost matches my expectations, although I think I would spend more time using English than I actually did. Most of the English comes from listening to the Economist and a lecture series about linguistics, as well as editing and writing articles on Hacking Chinese.

Time spent on different activities

The list below is a breakdown of different kinds of activities in my life. The categories aren’t very well defined and should be taken with a pinch of salt. For instance, “studying” doesn’t merely include actual studying (reading textbooks, reviewing vocabulary and so on), but also using Chinese to do other things.

  • Studying (85 hours)

    • Chinese: 37 hours
    • Linguistics: 28 hours
    • Meta: 4 hours
    • Not Chinese: 16 hours

The high number for “linguistics” comes from reading a book about Chinese phonology, listening to lectures about Chinese grammar (both live and recorded) along with related homework and so on. “Not Chinese” refers to other attempts at educating myself, including a lecture series in general linguistics (the other category is only for Chinese linguistics in Chinese) and some other projects I have running in the background.

  • Essential (62 hours)
    • Sleep: 51 hours
    • Other: 11 hours

“Sleep” should be obvious; “other” means things like eating, showering, brushing my teeth and so on. This category is pretty boring in general, but I will say some interesting things about it below.

  • Gymnastics (16 hours)

This is self-explanatory, I think. Includes stretching.

  • Social (13 hours)

Mostly with classmates, team mates (gymnastics) and online (social media not included).

  • Hacking Chinese (4 hours)
    • Writing, editing: 2 hours
    • Social media, updates: 2 hours

Again, this should be self-explanatory.

  • Miscellaneous (22 hours)

    • Games: 13 hours
    • Social media, news, Wikipedia: 4 hours
    • Teaching Swedish: 3 hours
    • Snigel.nu: 1 hour
    • Time-log: 1 hour

Any category system will have a “all the other stuff I couldn’t fit into the other categories” category and here it is. Games refer to various online games or Rubik’s cube (mostly the former, though). The second point is somewhat arbitrarily grouped, but since I didn’t spend much time on any of those things, it simply didn’t feel worthwhile to analyse further.

A closer look at overlapping tasks

I really hope you have better things to do than adding all those numbers up, but if you do, you will find that the total time is 202 hours. A week has 168 hours. This is because some tasks overlap. However, I only note overlapping tasks if I’m able to do both adequately at once.

The activities that most often overlap are the “essential” ones plus any kind of studying (I almost always listen to lectures or something educational while eating, walking, doing the laundry and so on). The “games” category actually overlaps 100% with other activities, meaning that I never play games without listening to something worthwhile at the same time.

A typical day in March 2013

What follows is an edited extract from my time log. I’ve removed references to particular people, overly detailed category information and some other things I don’t want to share online. I have also swapped some activities to try to make this day match what is most typical of my life right now. The time noted is the time when that activity ends. Asterisks (*) denote activities mainly in Chinese. In cases where activities overlap, I have simply omitted the less important one (often “eating”, “walking” and so on).

This is a slightly modified version of Monday 18th:

06:05    Sleep
06:12    Essential
06:47    Social*
06:59    HC    Daily check-up
07:08    Misc    Social media, news
08:28    Phonology*    Writing
08:31    Misc    Social media
09:01    Grammar*    Lecture
09:15    Social*
12:14    Class*    Teaching
14:02    Social*
14:04    Meta    Time log management
14:06    Misc    Social media, news
15:16    Phonology*    Writing
15:28    Grammar*    Lecture
16:10    Phonology*    Discussion
16:26    Phonolgy    Planning
16:30    Meta    Time-log management
17:23    Economist
17:50    Sleep
17:56    Essential
18:12    Grammar*    Lecture
21:01    Physical    Gymnastics
21:14    Grammar*    Lecture
21:23    HC    E-mail, comments
21:30    Misc    Social media, e-mail
22:00    Economist
22:31    Phonology*    Writing
22:54    HC    Social media, e-mail
23:06    Physical    Stretching
23:44    Economist

What I have learnt from this time log

These are my thoughts after doing this time log, looking through the result and writing this article:

  • I spend more time than I think doing things I want to do
  • I spend much less time on social media than I thought I did
  • I spend much more time on language consumption rather than production
  • I spend almost no time at all being creative
  • I sleep more than I thought (slightly above seven hours per day)

To be honest, though, this time log is probably the least helpful I have ever done. It mostly tells me that I’m on the right track and that I spend a huge majority of my time doing things I actually want to do for various reasons. Now, this might be useful in itself (it’s a great morale boost if nothing else), but it isn’t very helpful.

The two major things that are lacking include deliberate practice target at areas of Chinese I know I have problems with (I’m talking about actual skills here, so linguistics doesn’t count) and creative output. I need more of that. Much more. However, I also feel that I’m way behind in my reading, so as long as I feel that writing articles like this one is enough to satisfy my need to express myself in writing, I might be fine with this for the foreseeable future.

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Last week, I wrote an article about a reading plan for taking my Chinese to the next level. In order to have a clearer starting point and allow others to understand better what I’m doing and how things are going, this article details all books I’ve read in Chinese so far. I will keep it updated as I read more books.

The following list consists of all books I’ve read in Chinese so far. I have only included…

  • …books written for native speakers
  • …books not written for children
  • …books I’ve read from cover to cover

That means that I haven’t included dozens of textbooks for foreigners, untold numbers of newspaper articles, papers, theses and so on, neither have I included books for children or other learning materials which aren’t aimed towards adults. I might have forgotten a book or two, but this list should be almost complete (with approximate dates). In case I have written something about my experience reading the book, I have provided a link.

Naturally, there’s a huge difference in time spent per book. 《實用現代漢語語法》is 500+ pages of grammar and probably took ten times longer to read than《茫點》, which is a fairly short and easy-to-read novel. Even though my own Chinese ability also influences speed, I would argue that the main reason I didn’t read more earlier is simply because…. I didn’t read. Obviously, reading《潰雪》(that’s Snow Crash, by Neal Stephenson) in 2011 took some serious time and I could have read at least five easier novels in that time, but this isn’t important. Regardless of how I measure reading in Chinese, the measurement is going to be crude and I’m fine with that. Book length and complexity probably balances out in the end anyway.

Books I’ve read in Chinese so far (2013-12-14):

  • 2010-07: 《孔子的部落格》 陳峰、夢亦非
  • 2010-09: 銀河公民》 羅伯特·海萊因
  • 2011-02: 《鍊金術士》 保羅·科而賀
  • 2011-04: 《世界大戰》 H.G.威爾斯
  • 2011-11: 《潰雪》 尼爾·史蒂芬森
  • 2012-03: 《華語文教學規範與理論基礎》 葉德明
  • 2012-06: 《空想科學》 柳田理科雄
  • 2012-08: 《漢語語法:修訂版》 李納、湯姆遜
  • 2012-11: 犀照》 倪匡
  • 2013-01: 《天觀雙俠》 鄭丰
  • 2013-01: 《華語語音學》 葉德明
  • 2013-02: 《實用現代漢語語法》 劉月華、潘文娛、故辭
  • 2013-02: 《跟狗狗一起學物理》 查德·歐澤
  • 2013-02: 茫點》 倪匡
  • 2013-03: 《三體》 劉慈欣
  • 2013-03: 《漢語音韻》 耿志堅
  • 2013-04:《世界之眼(上)》 羅伯特·喬丹
  • 2013-05:《世界之眼(下)》 羅伯特·喬丹
  • 2013-05:《謝謝你離開我》 張小嫻
  • 2013-06:《大狩獵(上)》 羅伯特·喬丹
  • 2013-07:《大狩獵(下)》 羅伯特·喬丹
  • 2013-08:《在世界盡頭遇見台灣》 羅聿
  • 2013-09:《活著》 余華
  • 2013-09:《漢字書法之美》 蔣勳
  • 2013-09:《黑天鵝語錄》 納西姆·尼可拉斯·塔雷伯
  • 2013-10:《老子的部落格》 曹鴻濤
  • 2013-10:《真龍轉生(上)》 羅伯特·喬丹
  • 2013-11:《真龍轉生(下)》 羅伯特·喬丹
  • 2013-11:《飢餓遊戲》 蘇珊·柯林斯
  • 2013-11:《空想科學読本(2)》 柳田理科雄
  • 2013-11:《棋王》 阿城
  • 2013-12:《星火燎原》 蘇珊·柯林斯
  • 2013-12:《科幻世界的哲學凝視》 陳瑞麟
  • 2013-12:《空想科學読本(3)》 柳田理科雄

Books I’m currently reading:

  • 那些年,我們呢一起追的女孩
  • 空想科學読本(3)

2013-03-21 update

As you can see, I’m well on my towards reading 25 books this year. I have already read six books so far, which is almost equal to the number of books I read in 2011 and 2012 combined. If we extrapolate this number, I will end up with 25-30 books before the end of 2013.

If I keep that going, I will reach 100 books in about three years. Of course, steadily improving reading speed should increase the number of books, but there will inevitably be periods when I read less, which cancels out any speed improvements. I will update this article whenever I finish reading a book, although I might not write reviews of all the books I read.

2013-09-19 update

Apparently, I didn’t read as much as I planned to during summer, so I’m somewhat behind schedule. Considering that I read one extra book early, only started falling behind in June. Providing that I read one more book this month, I will be three books behind schedule (or four since the goal is actually 25 this year, not 24 or two books per month). That’s quite a lot considering that I still read fairly slowly. Still, I have some interesting books available and I’m sure I can find the time. I haven’t given up yet, 25 books is still within reach!

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I have come a very long way since I started learning Chinese little more than five years ago. I can read novels, academic papers, textbooks, newspapers and most other types of writing I come across, without using a dictionary. I can even do so without thinking that language is a major problem. Of course, I don’t read terribly fast (about 200 characters per minute for easier newspaper articles; much slower for heavy academic reading), but I would say that I’m literate in Chinese.

The relationship between input and output when learning languages isn’t obvious, but the theory I tend to adhere to the most is that massive amounts of input gives a solid foundation on which a near-native output ability can be built. This is true for both listening/speaking and reading/writing, but in this article I will only talk about the latter. In other words, reading huge amounts of Chinese will hopefully give me the potential to acquire a near-native level of writing in Chinese.

Looking back at how I learnt English

Back ground: I have spent a total of three weeks in English-speaking countries and have learnt most of what I know in normal compulsory education plus a lot of reading/listening on my own. How did I achieve my current English level?

After having learnt how to communicate most things I wanted to say/write in English (which probably happened in high school), I spent an awful amount of time reading in English. I also listened to loads of audio books. I estimate that I have read or listened to about five hundred books in English. That’s a lot, even compared with educated native speakers. This gave me a very solid passive knowledge of English. but it didn’t make me good at speaking and writing, at least not directly.

Turning this passive knowledge into increased writing ability came only in 2006 when I started studying English at university. I found that I was usually able to intuitively tell whether a sentence was grammatically correct or not; sometimes words I couldn’t even tell what they meant popped up in my mind, seemingly from nowhere, and when I looked them up, they actually turned out to fit into the sentence I was writing.

However, reading isn’t enough to become good at writing. I don’t mean to say that I’m a brilliant writer in English (or any other language), but I do think I have mastered the basics and that I’m slowly inching my way towards actually being able to write well. This is mostly because of the fact that I’ve written at least a thousand pages of text in English during the last five years. When I say a thousand pages, we’re talking about composition, so chatting or any other kind of sporadic typing obviously doesn’t count.

I think that the best way to reach a native writing ability is to read an awful lot and spend a thousand hours or so of deliberate practice converting that passive knowledge into active writing ability. Naturally, these aren’t serial processes; it’s perfectly possible (and advisable) to both at once. However, I do believe input is where most students fail.

Taking my Chinese to the next level

Even though I can express myself fluently and with reasonably accuracy both in speaking and writing, my Chinese is still very limited compared to my English or Swedish. Sometimes, that leaves me very frustrated, but then I think of the amount of time invested in the other two languages and find that the comparison isn’t fair. Swedish is my native language, so I didn’t have much choice that to study it for thousands and thousands of hours before English and French appeared in school. Regarding English, I’m not a native speaker, but as I’ve already explained, I have spent some serious time studying English.

I have probably spent more than ten thousand hours learning Chinese so far, but that’s just a small fraction of the time I’ve spent on the other two languages. With that in mind, who am I to say that Chinese feels impossible to learn at times? Shouldn’t I at least spend as much time learning Chinese as I’ve spent learning English before I say it’s hard? I think I should. Chinese is obviously harder than English to learn for native speakers of Swedish, but that doesn’t mean that the method I used to learn English won’t work for Chinese. Sure, it might not take me to the same proficiency level, but I will definitely close the gap.

Thus, I intend to read a lot. My general plan is to try to reach a hundred books as quickly as possible (novels, textbooks, prose). In this article, I will outline a plan. After that, I will publish a list of what I’ve read so far and then keep that list updated.

A reading plan for 2013

My goal is to read at least 25 books in 2013. It doesn’t really matter what books I read as long as they meet certain criteria (for adults, for native speakers, read from cover to cover). In order to make sure that I have a strong enough motivation, my plan is to mix books I really want to read with books that I feel that I ought to read but might not enjoy that much.

For instance, I just finished reading the first part of 三體, but instead of starting on the second part immediately, I will add something dryer in between and continue with 三體 as a kind of reward once I’m done with the next book. In general, the plan looks as follows:

  1. Read lightweight books (novels) if I’m behind schedule
  2. Read heavier books (textbooks) if I’m ahead of schedule

As I just did with 倪匡, I will review and write about my quest to find good science fiction in Chinese. Next on the review list is 三體, but I’ll most likely wait with reviewing that until I’ve read the two sequels. As for the rest of the books I plan to read, I will write about them only if I feel like it, so don’t expect too much.

Looking back at the road behind me, I know that I’ve come far. Looking at the road that stretches out in front of me, I realise that most of the journey is still ahead. Reading a hundred books in Chinese won’t be enough to reach an educated native level, but it will propel me in the right direction. Hopefully, I will also enjoy the scenery as I walk.

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